The Turkish Van is a breed of cat native to the rugged mountains of the Lake Van region in Eastern Turkey. Originally called the Turkish Cat, the name was changed in 1979 in the U.S. ( 1985 in the U.K.) to Turkish Van to better distance the breed from the Turkish Angora cat which had its origins around Ankara, in central Turkey. Traditionally, in the cat fancy, Turkish Vans are recognized as patterned cats with color restricted to the head and tail with the body of the cat being white. Historically, in Turkey, solid white is also the color for the Van Kedisi, which some consider to be synonymous with the Turkish Van.
In the Complete Cat Encyclopedia, edited by Grace Pond and published in 1972, Laura Lushington wrote that:
In the U.S. The International Cat Association, TICA, was the first to accept Turkish Vans for championship status, doing so in 1979. The Cat Fanciers Association, CFA, followed in 1994. The first successful breeders of Turkish Van in the U.S. were Jack and Barbara Reark who were two of the twelve founding members of TICA. The Rearks imported their first Turkish Vans in 1983.
The coat is the most fascinating trait on this cat. The climate change in Turkey throughout the year seems to have designed the cat's coat over time. Eastern Turkey is mountainous, and Lake Van sits over 5,260 ft. above sea level. The area faces such extreme temperatures during the summer and winter seasons that it is almost inhospitable. The semi–long haired, water resistant single coat, is thick in winter but very soft, like rabbit fur or cashmere. At maturity, the cat will have a winter mane. During the spring and summer months when Turkey becomes extremely hot, the long hair on the body is shed for a shorter coat that retains the cashmere feel. The hair on the tail remains long throughout the year and has the appearance of a bottle brush.
The Turkish Van is a large,
semi-longhaired cat with a swimmer's body. Ideal type should feature
broad shoulders with a body that is 'top heavy', that is a cat with its
center of gravity forward. The cat is moderately long and its back legs
are slightly longer than its front legs but, neither the cat itself nor
its legs are so long to be disproportionate. These cats are large and
muscular and feature short necks - the males can be massive and are
considered the football players of the cat world.
Vans are sometimes confused with Turkish Angoras, although a side-by-side comparison reveals vastly different characteristics. Angoras are named after Ankara (Angora) and descended separately from the Vans. Angoras also carry the W gene associated with white fur, blue eyes and deafness while Vans do not. Van eye color can be amber, blue or odd (one each, amber and blue) but Vans with two blue eyes are not deaf like Angoras. The breed should be thin and nimble and should be very independent to each other.
Turkish Vans are very intelligent, and will easily take over their home and owners. Vans are people cats that want to be with people wherever they go. They like to play and jump and explore anything in their reach, which is quite large. They are energetic; they play hard and sleep hard. Many Vans are dedicated to fetching their particular object of interest, and many owners describe them as "dogs in a cat suit" because of their unusual personalities.
The coloring of the Turkish Van should be limited to the head and tail with random body spots acceptable but all color should not exceed more than 20% of the entire cat. The random spots should not detract from the pattern. This would be a small color cap on the head with a white blaze to at least between the front edge of the ears, and a colored tail in any of the traditional colors. The rest of the cat is chalk white. Color can extend up the rump from the tail of the cat and patterned cats often have a random spot or spots of color on the shoulder or body. This is acceptable as the native people see this as the "Mark of Allah" left when Allah touched the cat to give it his blessing. White Turkish Vans should be solid white if that variety is accepted by their registration association.
The traditional color of a Turkish Van is Red Tabby and White; as this was the first color exported out of Turkey. Later colors added were Cream, Black, Blue, Cream Tabby, Brown Tabby, Blue Tabby, Tortoiseshell, Dilute Tortoiseshell, Brown Torbie, and Blue Torbie.
Currently, in Turkey, the Van Kedisi (English: Van cat) is recognized only as an all white cat, generally with odd eyes. These cats may be either short or long haired. The all white Turkish Van is claimed to be genetically identical to the patterned cat with the exception of the white masking gene that "covers" the pattern. Offspring of a white Turkish Van mated to a patterned Van will be a 50/50 mix of white and patterned kittens. At present cat associations in England recognize the patterned offspring of such a mating as Turkish Vans and the white offspring as a new breed called Turkish Vankedisi. In the U.S., TICA has fully accepted the white vans as Turkish Vans as has the Government of Turkey. CFA, the world's largest registry of pedigreed cats, does not recognize the all-white Turkish Van as they define the breed by both its type and pattern.
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